Welche Ausgaben müssen Eigentümer für umweltfreundliches Heizen einplanen?

AOn this Friday, the Bundestag is expected to pass a law that will have financial consequences for millions of citizens. The amendment to the Building Energy Act will formally come into effect on January 1, 2024, with stricter rules for the installation of new heating systems in new residential areas. By mid-2028 at the latest, when all municipalities are expected to have made their heat plans, the requirement of at least 65 percent renewable energy in the installation of new heating systems must also be observed in existing buildings. Whether this requirement is met with a heat pump, district heating, wood, or green gases is up to the decision of the homeowners.

Julia Löhr

Wirtschaftskorrespondentin in Berlin.

Especially the FDP is proud that the amendment to the law now offers owners more possibilities than the initial draft from the Ministry of Economics by Robert Habeck (Green Party) anticipated. However, for homeowners, this also means that they must carefully consider. Firstly, whether they should replace their heating system now in order to benefit from the promised subsidies by the coalition, or whether they should wait until the old heating system is irreparably damaged. Secondly, they must assess which type of green heating will be the most cost-effective in their area and their house in the long term.

The non-profit consulting company Co2online regularly analyzes the operating costs of different heating systems. The data is collected from consumers who, supported by the Ministry of Economy, conduct a „heating cost check.“ The current figures from the heating mirror still refer to the year 2021. At that time, for a 110 square meter single-family house, a wood heating system with less than 1000 euros of annual heating costs was the most affordable option. The electric heat pump, as well as the gas and oil heating systems, ranged around 1500 euros, with district heating being the most expensive option at over 1700 euros – the same district heating that is expected to be significantly expanded in the coming years according to the decisions of the traffic light coalition.

Vergleich von Heizungstypen über zwei Jahrzehnte

To provide homeowners with guidance for the period after the new building energy law comes into effect, the consulting company for F.A.Z. compared the investment and operating costs of several types of heating systems over a 20-year period, which is the average lifespan of a heating system. The calculation is based on the assumption that owners will receive both the planned basic subsidy of 30 percent and the speed bonus of 20 percent as a grant from the government, totaling 50 percent of the investment costs up to a cost limit of 30,000 euros.

The wood pellet heating system performs best in this overall calculation. After deducting the subsidy, Co2online estimates investment costs of 8125 euros and operating costs of 29,882 euros, totaling 38,007 euros. In second place is the heat pump combined with a solar system, with investment costs of 32,200 euros after deducting the subsidy and operating costs of 10,766 euros over the 20 years.

Es folgen die Fernwärme (3000 Euro Anschlusskosten plus 44.032 Euro Betriebskosten), die klassische Wärmepumpe (9000 Euro nach Förderung plus 45.240 Euro Stromkosten) und zum Schluss die Gasheizung mit 7500 Euro für die Installation und 66.370 Euro Gas- und CO2-Kosten. Die zugrunde gelegten Investitionskosten basieren auf Daten des Baukosteninformationszentrums der Architektenkammern, für die Betriebskosten wurden die aktuellen Energiepreise und die Fortsetzung der historischen Preistrends angenommen, für den CO2-Preis 15 Euro mehr je Tonne und Jahr nach dem Auslaufen der gesetzlichen Vorgaben.

Holzheizungen sind nur bei lokaler Forstwirtschaft zu empfehlen

„I cannot reword.“

Depending on the initial costs assumed, the calculation can also yield different results. For instance, the Federal Association of Consumer Centers (VZBV) sets higher prices for new heating systems. The consumer advocates estimate installation costs of 31,000 euros for a traditional air-water heat pump and 37,000 euros for a pellet heating system. Even after deducting subsidies, this would require higher initial investments than what is stated in Co2online’s calculation.

When the Energy Economics Institute of the University of Cologne (EWI) calculated several cost scenarios for the F.A.Z. in April, it concluded that in the long term, despite higher investment costs, a ground-source heat pump can be more cost-effective than a traditional air-source heat pump or a new gas heating system.

2-Ausstoßes davon aus, dass die Energiepreise in den nächsten Jahren stabil bleiben werden. Diese Prognose steht im Widerspruch zu den Erwartungen vieler Verbraucher, die aufgrund der steigenden Nachfrage und der begrenzten Ressourcen mit einer weiteren Preiserhöhung rechnen. Daher wird die Entscheidung für Verbraucher nicht einfacher.2-Preises davon aus, dass der Preis für eine Kilowattstunde Gas von aktuell 16 Cent auf 14,4 Cent im Jahr 2035 zurückgeht. Für die Kilowattstunde Strom im Rahmen eines Wärmepumpentarifs geht das Ministerium aktuell von 33,5 Cent je Kilowattstunde aus, im Jahr 2035 von 31,5 Cent. Das Ministerium schreibt allerdings, dass diese Prognosen „mit großer Unsicherheit behaftet“ seien.